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Friday, April 20, 2018
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THE CONSTITUENTS OF BARLEY GRAIN WITH THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL

THE CONSTITUENTS OF BARLEY GRAIN WITH THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL

Archeological confirmation demonstrates that grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) was one grain and is accepted for its beginning from western Asia or Ethiopia. Grain is still viewed as one of the main five oat crops by the world1. Grain contains an expansive extent of starch which is utilized basically as a vitality source2.
Protein substance of the greater part of the grain ranges from 7.5 to17% on a dry matter premise with 75% of that protein being absorbable. On the further hand, protein levels by an overabundance of roughly 13.6% dry matter might not considerably build the estimation of grain to animals feeders3.
Grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is not just utilized for blending and as a creature sustain yet there is a developing enthusiasm for it for person nourishment and modern use 4-7. It is watched that the grouping of miniaturized scale/large scale supplements are for the main part higher on the surface of the soil and diminished with the dirt profundity, in spite of higher convergence of smaller scale supplements by soil, just a little centralization of miniaturized scale/ full-scale supplements are available by grain. The reason being that development of smaller scale/ full-scale supplements into grain includes the phloem, the optional flow of the plant. This framework includes the development of living cell sap from cell to cell, the phloem sifter tubes. This transportation framework saw at elevated pH of the dirt (basic) range from 7.9-8.3. Increment by pH and earth content by soil diminished the development of nutritive components while a converse pattern is seen with expansion by level of water application rate.
EXPERIMENTS
(a) Sample collection: The soil samples (30 cm. depth) and barley grain were collected from the different places of Rajasthan and Haryana (Jaipur, Sikar, Rewari) by the month of December-January and April-May 2010-2011 respectively.
(b)Method: The collected samples of barley grain and soil were dried at 105ºC by the oven for 12hours. 20.0 g samples (Jaipur, Sikar, Rewari) of dried soils and 20.0 g of barley samples were weighed into 100 ml clean and dried conical flasks and treated with 5 ml of concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and simultaneously 5ml of nitric acid And added to a clean and dried empty conical flask serving as a blank. The sample flasks were covered with clean and dried watch glasses. The contents of the flask were reflux gently on an electric hot plate. After refluxing for an hour, the contents of flasks were treated with an excess of nitric acid (HNO3), 2 ml of 35% Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and further gentle reflux was continued for another one hour until the volumes of their contents were reduced to 2-3 ml. The contents of the flask were cooled, diluted with elevated purity water, and filtered through Whatman filter paper number 42 by to 25 ml volumetric flasks. The contents of the flasks were brought to volume with elevated purity water and examined by  Atomic absorption spectrometry hydride-generation (AAS-HG) for their Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe) levels.
The analyses were performed according to the Association of official analytical Chemist8 (Standard Official Methods of (FL/SOP/C-14/AAS) for soil samples and barley samples were analyzed by  ICP-MS technique using ELAN DRC-e, MS PERKIN ELMER SCIEX-9000 instrument.
RESULTS: The consequences of soil and barley grain analysis are summarized by   table  and table 2: Table 1: Concentration consequences by  (ICP-MS)
Instrumental conditions for the ICP-MS measurement of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe elements



Mass


Net Intensity mean


Conc. Means


Conc. SD


Conc. RSD


Sample unit
Na
23
80920.213
19.171
0.07
0.3
ppb
K
39
1261563.616
238.630
2.20
0.9
ppb
Ca
43*
22649.647
3068.259
65.31
2.1
ppb
Mg
24
133984.905
54.365
0.12
0.2
ppb
Fe
56
399915.601
53.612
16.19
30.2
ppb
*Isotopes of Calcium mass.
Table 2: consequences of barley grain from Rajasthan (Jaipur and Sikar), Haryana (Rewari) and soil sample from Rajasthan
Elements
(BJr)         Barley from Jaipur region (By ICP-MS)
(BSr)           Barley from Sikar region (By ICP-MS)
(BHr)       Barley from Haryana region (By ICP-MS)
Soil sample from Rajasthan (By AAS-HG)
Na (ppm)
2182.287
817.387
384.442
261.50
K (ppm)
5788.055
5787.959
4785.328
2360.0
Ca (ppm)
537.580
728.52
615.228
2267.0
Mg (ppm)
1157.94
1227.348
1090.199
4383.00
Fe (ppm)
900.289
2100.257
1075.099
15678.00
T.C. Wt. (gm.)
41.2
42.8
38.6
NA
BJr (Barley from Jaipur region), Br (Barley from Sikar region), BHA (Barley from Haryana region), T. C. Wt. (Thousand corn weight), NA (Not applicable).
Graph 1: Micronutrients Calcium, Magnesium and Iron by barley grain with Soil concentration.
Graph 2: Micronutrients Calcium, Sodium and Potassium by barley grain with Soil concentration.
Graph 3:  Micronutrients Magnesium, Sodium and Potassium by barley grain with Soil concentration.
Graph 4: Micronutrients Sodium, Potassium and Iron by barley grain with Soil concentration.

CONCLUSIONS

There is a significant relationship between soil properties and the concentration of micro and macronutrient of the grain. The analysis shows that the concentration of Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) (261.50 and 2360.00 ppm respectively) present by the soil is very low as compared to the concentration of Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) (942.028 and 5286.667 ppm respectively) present by the barley grain. Similarly, the concentration of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe) (2267.00, 4383.00 and 15678.00 ppm respectively) appears to be very elevated by  soil as compared to the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron (624.139, 1141.421 and 1287.686 ppm respectively) by  the barley grain in spite of very elevated concentration by  soil.
The soil of the area investigations was moderately calcareous and loamy by  nature9. The accumulation of CaCO3 by soils might be due to semi-arid climatic conditions and it might be achievable that CaCO3 is accumulating by these soils 10. The analysis of the soil And confirms the lower percentage of organic carbon and a higher percentage of pH which might be due to the poor vegetation and elevated rate of the organic matter decomposition under an elevated temperature which consequences to extremely elevated oxidizing conditions 11.
The stepwise analysis shows that elevated value of soil pH (more alkaline) is the dominant factor responsible for oxidation. This influences the uptake of nutritional elements by plants. It might be possible; first, that increasing soil pH (7.9-8.3) reduces the concentration of transition elements, calcium, magnesium, and iron12 by the grain. mainly probably, increase in soil pH and clay content decreases the movement of elements. Secondly, these forms (cations) of transition elements by the soil are simply solubilized by lowering of the pH value; either by complexation or reduction of elements thus, a mainly available form of micronutrients converts by less soluble form after oxidation. Therefore, the concentration of micronutrients is reduced at higher pH level that is at higher pH level micronutrients can be precipitate as insoluble form.
The analysis And shows that increase by thousand corn weight (T. C. Wt.) of the barley grain, the concentration of micro/macro-nutrients (analyzed) is And increasing, which enhance the nutritional value and the quality of the grain. The higher percentage of potassium and calcium concerned by blood clot formation, while grain rich with calcium, magnesium, and iron is beneficial for weight loss, healing of ulcers and correcting blood sugar problems.

 Acknowledgments


I express my profound and cordial thanks to Dr. R. K. Singh, research supervisor for his able guidance, and constructive criticism during the course of my research work. My sincere thanks are And due to Mrs. Akshi Kejriwal (Technical Director) Bar malt (India) Private Limited, Gurgaon, and the Department of Chemistry, Fare lab, Gurgaon and Arbor Pharmaceutical Limited, Delhi for providing the space and instrumentation facility.
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